Appendix II: Bibliography and Resources
based on Wayland as a case study
1. Town/city meeting records, valuations, and annual reports, directories of street listings (town/city archives, public library, historical society)
2. Local History: (library, historical society)
Every community has its own written local history (secondary source) that can lead students to primary sources that will help them learn about townspeople in Civil War times. In Massachusetts around 1876, the time of the centennial of the nation, many local histories were written, which contain information about the recent Civil War and about leading townspeople.
3. State records on requirements of towns/cities to meet quotas etc. (state archives)
In Massachusetts we are fortunate that excellent civil and military records of the Civil War exist. A Guide to the Collections of the Massachusetts Archives, Civil War Records contains annotated references to the Massachusetts public records held at the Mass. State Archives at Columbia Point Boston, 02125.
Military Records are also held at Adjutant General’s office in Worcester, 01609, c/o Office of State Quartermaster, Archivist.
4. Census: National (1860) and state (1860, 1865); (local, state and national archives)
5. Regimental histories (military history section of regional and state libraries)
Timelines of all of the Massachusetts Regimental actions are online and regimental histories are available in major libraries. Many of Wayland's first (1862) quota of 19 enlisted men served in the 35th Regiment, Co. D, and a weblink to a summary of its activities and digitized summary of sections from its history are included in the Bibliography.
6. County histories (local and regional libraries)
7. Newspapers, cartoons, local, state (local at historical society; county, state, national @Boston Public Library, Mass. Historical Society, American Antiquarian Society etc. and online)
8. Photographs of Civil War; (local through historical society, museums; general - photo albums of national collections, Matthew Brady e.g., in public libraries, online sites listed below).
9. Community celebrations/memorial re soldiers who served in the Civil War
Most communities paid tribute to their soldiers in some way after the end of the war, mainly with ceremonies and statues. In the case of Wayland, the town determined to honor its men by writing a memorial book about those who had served, which made it possible to gain insights into the characters and their actions. Personal writings, anecdotes enliven their stories. Portions of a journal one soldier wrote upon return, based on his letters home, were deemed so valuable that 60 pages of it are printed in this memorial book, which not every town can duplicate.
10. Family history, photographs and memorabilia (local historical society, regional museum, genealogical sources)
35th Massachusetts, "The History of the Thirty-Fifth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 1862-1865, with a Roster," by a Committee of the Regimental Association. Originally published in 1884, at Boston, Massachusetts. Rare Book; Check in Boston Public Library and historical society libraries, university inter-library loan for this and other regimental histories.
Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Massachusetts. Journal of the Annual Encampment. 25 vols 1907-1942. Boston
Hingham, Town of (Massachusetts) The Town of Hingham in the Late Civil War. Boston: Rand, Avery & Co., 1876
Hutchinson, T. J & Ralph Childs. Patriots of Salem (MA) Officers and Enlisted Men during the late Civil War. Salem, MA: T. J. Hutchinson & Son 1877
Jameson, E. O. (editor). The Military History of Medway, Mass 1745-1885. Providence, RI: J. A. & R. A. Reid, Printers 1886.
Massachusetts. Adjutant General. Massachusetts Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines in the Civil War. 9 vols. Norwood: Norwood, 1931
O’Connor, Thomas H., Civil War Boston: Home Front and Battlefield. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1997. This study contains an excellent bibliography with many references on Massachusetts that relate to all the cities and towns.
Raymond, Samuel The Record of Andover (MA) during the Rebellion. Andover: Warren F. Draper, 1875
Sargent, A. Dean (compiler) GAR Civil War Veterans, Department of Massachusetts 1866-1947. Baltimore: Heritage Books, Inc., 2003
William Schouler, A History of Massachusetts in the Civil War (2 vols., Boston, 1868-'71) Volume 2 is on Mass. Cities and Towns in the Civil War.
Print Non-Fiction: Wayland
Cutting, Alfred Wayland, Old-Time Wayland, 1926. Privately printed.
“Childhood Memories.” Typed format.
Copies of both in Grout-Heard House, Wayland Historical Society.
Emery, Helen Fitch, The Puritan Village Evolves. Published for the Wayland Historical Commission, 1981.
Heard, Mary, “Our Old Church”, Prepared 1920 for Unitarian Church, refers to several Town Characters.
“This Old House”. Memories of David Heard House.
Copies of both in Grout-Heard House, Wayland Historical Society.
Hudson, Alfred Sereno, The Annals of Wayland, Sudbury and Maynard, 1891.
Robinson, Barbara, Wayland Historical Tours, 1976. Wayland Bicentennial Committee.
Trageser, Mary, “Wayland in the Civil War”. 1961. Typed copy in Grout-Heard House, Wayland Historical Society.
Wayland, Massachusetts, The Town of Wayland in the Civil War of 1861-65. (Wayland, 1871)
James Sumner Draper, Edmund Hamilton Sears, Lafayette Dudley, editors. A Memorial of the Wayland men who served in the Army and Navy of the American Union.
Print Non Fiction: Servicemen’s Letters and Diaries
David Blight, editor, When This Cruel War is Over, The Civil War Letters of Charles Harvey Brewster. Amherst, University of Mass. Press, 1992. Brewster was a member of the 10th MA Regiment and wrote over 200 letters to his mother and sisters. Historic Northampton owns the letters and arranged for the editing by Blight and publication.
Roberson, Elizabeth Whitley, Weep Not for Me, Dear Mother, Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Co, 1996. Letters from a young Confederate soldier to mother and sister.
Lesson based on this book, “Eli Landers: Letters of a Confederate Soldier”, Social Education 66(2), pp. 122-129, 2002 National Council for the Social Studies, includes 9 letters and a photograph.. “Examining the content, tone, and implications of the letters makes students aware of the personal costs of that war, and gives them emotional understanding
Print Non-Fiction: General:
According to historian James M. McPherson, there are some 50,000 volumes on the Civil War - - And they keep coming! See Civil War Book Review, a joint publication of BookPage and USCWC. A few authors are singled out below.
Catton, Bruce, any of his many books about the War (1951-68)
Donald, David Herbert. The Civil War and Reconstruction, WW Norton & Co, 2000, and others.
Foote , Shelby, The Civil War: A Narrative, 3 vols. New York, 1958, 1963, 1974.
Well known for his commentary during the P.B.S. series on the Civil War by Ken Burns.
Grant, Ulysses S. , The Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, and Selected Letters, 1839-1865 (S. Illinois Univ. Press, 1984) are considered among the best written by any U.S. President. His accounts of the war itself are insightful.
Hakim, Joy, History of U.S., 10 volumes. Vol. VI, War, Terrible War.1860-1865. Oxford University Press, 1997. Lively and compelling for student study. Companion guides and tapes listed under Curriculum.
McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: the Civil War Era, New York, 1988, and others.
Ward, Geoffrey C., with Ric Burns and Ken Burns. An Illustrated History of the Civil War, New York (reprint 2000). See also related PBS videos on the Civil War)
Literature- Grades 7-Adult
Alcott, Louisa May, Hospital Sketches. Boston, 1863, reprint Cambridge, 1960.
Crane, Stephen, Red Badge of Courage. (orig 1895, classic story - can be found in libraries or online.
Lawlor, Lauri, Wind on the River: A Story of the Civil War. Illustrated by John Winch. Holiday House, 2002.
Lyon, George Ella and Peter Catalanotto, Cecil’s Story. Orchard, 1991. A story of family with father off to war, and war’s effects. 5-9
Marten, James, The Children’s Civil War. University of North Carolina Press, 1999. The book relates how newspaper articles, letters from family members, and children’s literature influenced attitudes toward the war.
Paulsen, Gary, Soldier's Heart. Bantam, 1998; story or 15 yr-old boy who enlists as a fighter, in spite of age.
Shaara, Michael, Killer Angels, paperback 1987. Son Jeff Shaara, Gods and Generals Ballantine 1996, and The Last Full Measure (1999), 9-Adult
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, Uncle Tom’s Cabin or Life Among the Lowly. orig 1851. Now available in paperback and on several online sites.
Werner, Emmy E. Reluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War Boulder, 1998. 7-12. Non-fiction.
Whitman, Walt. Specimen Days, Boston, 1971. Whitman wrote vivid accounts of his service in hospitals.
Webpages and Websites:
Wayland Texts: Battle Front
35th Regiment Excerpts: Introduction/Lynnfield
Frank Draper Petersburg battle
Campbell hospital assistant
39th Regiment Excerpt: Butterworth Prison
Vol. II of Adjutant General Wm. Shouler, Massachusetts in the Civil War, on the Cities and Towns,
See Lesson 3 for links to 15 Town Characters
The 4th of July celebration 1865 welcomed home the men.
Bus Tour of Wayland/Cochituate in the Civil War: Annotated tour, originally with slides, some of which are included as digital images.
Sarah Heard Welcome
Comprehensive Civil War websites containing many additional links
Civil War Homepage Extensive site with battle maps, sites, timeline, research material on many topics, including Fugitive Slave Act.
The American Civil War Homepage Also extensive, with documents, bibliographies, images, histories.
PBS 9-part series on the Civil War by Ken Burns has good background info, links
Civil War Album has photos and virtual tours of battle sites; music
The United States Civil War Center An information clearinghouse, with a guide to researching people of the Civil War and many other features.
AmericanCivilWar.com This Web site covers a timeline, the people of the Civil War, maps of battles, and descriptions of battle locations.
The American Civil War includes military info., forums, weekly Civil War articles.
See Civil War Maps at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/cwmhtml/cwmhome.html
Massachusetts Civil War Research Center contains military statistics, regimental histories and information on individual soldiers.
"Ulysses S. Grant" American Experience program
The Pride of Providence: Major Sullivan Ballou, the Second Rhode Island Regiment and His Love Letter made Famous by PBS Civil War series.
This Week in the Civil War Day-by-day look at the war for the years 1861-1865.
Eyewitness: History Through the Eyes of Those Who Lived It The Civil War:
"Eyewitness - Antietam Page"
Antietam National Battlefield National Park Service web page on Antietam
Battle of Antietam Highlights of the battle, along with links for many resources and timeline
The Battle of Antietam on the Web
Library of Congress photographs of Antietam American Memory photos Antietam
Emancipation Proclamation and The Gettysburg Address
National Archives and Record Administration (NARA) page on the Emancipation Proclamation, including an essay on the signing by noted historian John Hope Franklin
New York State Library "Virtual Visit" page on the Emancipation Proclamation
The Gettysburg Address Library of Congress
"John Brown’s Holy War" from American Experience program.
African American Perspectives The Daniel A.P. Murray Pamphlet Collection. Among the authors represented are Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, Alexander Crummel, and Emanuel Love.
Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project,
1936-1938 More than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves..
From Slavery to Freedom 1824-1909 The African-American Pamphlet Collection, 1824-1909
Narratives of the American South: 1860-1920 The culture of 19th c. American South from the viewpoint of Southerners including a variety of personal accounts.
Many of the comprehensive sites listed above contain news articles from the Civil War.
Civil War Weekly, reproduces weekly events reported in the newspapers.
Civil War on the Internet. A monthly column in The Civil War News, a Cornell project.
American Experience, "The Time of the Lincolns" reveals roles of several major newspapers
Reproduction of The New York Times coverage of the battle of Antietam.
Civil War Cartoons: Racial satire and the Civil War, the war years.
Cartoon and Caricatures of the Civil War:
Civil War Cartoons at the American Antiquarian Society
Civil War Photographs from the Library of Congress: The select collection contains 1,118 photographs, most made under the supervision of Mathew B. Brady.
America’s First Look into the Camera The Library’s daguerreotype collection consists of more than 725 photographs dating from 1839 to 1864, again most by the Mathew Brady studio.
Civil War Images from PBS. Over 200 archival images.
Civil War Photos and other images from the New-York Historical Society's rich archival collections, including recruiting posters
Civil War Covers: A representative selection from the digital collection of the Connecticut Historical Society (1,700 items) has been put online.
CD entitled, "Massachusetts Database" by Dr. Edmond B. Thomas Jr. includes town totals for statewide elections of Governors, U.S.Senators, and Presidents. For more information, contact “Ask a Librarian”, State House, Room 341,Boston, 617-727-2590, M-F 9-5.
Period Music - extensive listing of tapes, records; music can be recorded.
Use search engine for many others that sell tapes and sheet music, instruments (fife e.g.)
Civil War Music excellent site for ideas.
Sheet Music about Lincoln, Emancipation. "We'll Sing to Abe Our Song!" Emphasis on Lincoln in more than two hundred sheet-music compositions from Rare Book and Special Collections Division of Library of Congress.
Historic American Sheet Music: 1850-1920 The collection presents 3,042 pieces
Check search engines re. uniforms, guns, drums, etc. of period, including graphics: For example, see
For the Relief of Soldiers: Yarmouth on the Civil War: an exhibit at the Hallet House Museum
Voices from the Civil War (Greenwich, CT) Letters from the Mead family between home and battlefield
Research the Civil War in Your Town For grades 7-12, a wealth of resources for state study, including effects of war on citizens on the homefront.
Civil War Preservation Trust has a History Center and Classroom with primary sources, lessons and activities included in their comprehensive website. There is a two-week unit for grades 5, 8 and 11. Table of contents outlines topics. See especially the War at Home.
Freedom: A History of US, PBS series based on Joy Hakim textbooks. See webisode 6, “A War to End Slavery.” Contains background information, teacher guides for 9 segments, timeline, vocabulary student worksheets. Webisode 1 has guide & worksheets on Civil War news and personal accounts of slavery, etc.
Activities related to the Civil War, including the Mass. 54th Colored Regiment, and Civil War Music.
After Reconstruction: Problems of African Americans in the South
Lesson plan on conflicting newspaper accounts (including Antietam)
Antietam, the bloodiest single day of the bloodiest war in American History
Photojournalism: A Record of War. This unit explores how and why war has been photographed and will also give students an opportunity to see the bias within the recording and reporting of war.
The Mathew Brady Bunch: Civil War Newspapers. Students become reporters, assigned to select a photograph in the Library’s collection that will bring the war alive to their readers.
Civil War Thematic Unit Based on books by Beatty Charlie Skedaddle, with links to additional Civil War lessons.
Literature: Red Badge of Courage lesson for 9-12
Literature Courage and Responsibility: The American Civil War Provides information and links for Across Five Aprils, Soldiers Heart, The Red Badge of Courage and Lincoln: A Photobiography, with listings of other Civil War books 9-12
Civil War Fiction Titles, with annotations for middle school level
Civil War in Children's Literature, Carol Hurst‘s Children’s Literature Site Upper elementary
American Civil War Literature Immersion Unit, 8th Grade Language Arts and Social Studies, N.C. Middle School interdisciplinary project involving several literary genres including primary and secondary souces.
What Do You See? Students use skills to analyze photographs and study how the war was a catalyst to America’s industrial development.
Civil War Music can download a pdf of lesson plan.
Walt Whitman, patriot poet, pdf of lesson available
Smith School, Virginia, 5th grade webpages on The Blue and the Gray Project
History Center and Classroom of Civil War Preservation Trust Lesson plans and activities
Teaching with Historic Places: Civil War History. Lessons around sites such as Andersonville Prison, Hospitals and Clara Barton Home that reveal the conditions of prisons and health care, as well as battle sites on National Register.