William Shouler, Boston, Massachusetts in the Civil War, 1868 (Vol. I) and 1871 (Vol. II),
Late Adjutant General of the Commonwealth, in Two Volumes
Vol II on Counties, Cities and Towns in Civil War (Bobby Robinson notes)
Population MA 1860 564,758 1865 658,073
Wayland 1860 1188 1865 1138
John N. Sherman 1861, 62, 63, 64
Thomas J. Damon 1861, 62
William Baldwin 1861, 62
Horace Heard 1863
James A. Loker 1863, 65
William C. Grout 1864,65
Henry R. Newton 1864, 65
Clerk & Treasurer Henry Wight (?) 1861-65
Men Furnished: 124 (surplus of 8 over demands) (Wayland records indicate 129)
4 Commissioned officers
Spent: Bounties: $13,582 plus State Aid (including private subscription which later reimbursed by town)
Aid to SoldierŐs families: $6,944.58, repaid by State
RR, telegraph, photography, major changes since the Rev. War receiving timely information.
New England Sanitary Commission
SoldierŐs Relief (overseen by Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis)
MA Christian Commission, distributed to hospitals (under Charles Demond of Boston), an YMCA ally. Visited Charlestown Navy Yard (sailors) and Readville and Gallops Islands camps (soldiers).
SoldierŐs Aid mission to recruit and sustain our armies in the field and promote maintenance for families.
Union sentiment high in the state. No record of any MA town (or city) with sentiment opposed to Union (p. 9) Steadfast through whole of Rebellion. (minor protests in cities – see below*)
At the outbreak of war and the sudden call for troops by Lincoln to defend the national capitol came as a surprise to many towns, 90 % of which had no military organization. Shouler listed as examples the Cape and Islands, Berkshires and other western counties.. (MA force in total less than 6,000 men, volunteer militia totaled 1000 men.)
There was early optimism that the war would last only 1 yr, and Secy of War downplayed the need for troops. MA organized 10 regiments and Secy would initially accept only six. After legal notices, town meetings were held in April 1861,with pay incentives to join (added to state per diem). The Legislature was called into extra session to regular and make equal payment of aid to soldierŐs families and payment of bounties. In May 14, 1861, it was agreed towns may raise $ to aid but not exceed the $12 monthly per family (towns to be reimbursed). Stayed in force throughout the war to prevent rivalry between towns but some towns paid extra because of private contributions. In November 1863 another attempt to set bounty limits, indicating law not always successful.
Optimism ended, President Lincoln called for 300,000 volunteers for three yrs in July 62, MA to furnish 15,000 troops (and each town a quota). The requested # obtained in less than 60 days. Then a short time later an additional 300,000 for 90 days. Massachusetts addition was 19,000 men. By this time MA had 35,000 military and 12, seamen in service. No credit then was given for Navy service. One in 15 of MA population in service. It was not long before bounties were used for out of town and foreign enlistments to fill gaps. It is known that some wealthy men hired others to take their place.
*There were protests in the large cities about fear of the draft. Shouler cites (p. 16) disturbing and disloyal elementsÓ, the ŇrabbleÓ, but protests had opposite effect, only aided enlistments. Each town had to submit data to get proper credit. Quota for each town Ňbased on census of all able-bodied male citizens between 18 and 45Ó, with a system of debit and credit between US, state, towns & cities & districts. MA filled every quota and kept good records. With the exception of 12 towns, all exceed quota.
In 1860 John Andrew Republican defeated E. Beach, Democrat, Amos Lawrence, Conservative and Benjamin Butler (Breckenridge wing of Democrats)